The Social and Economic Problems of Home-based and Outdoor Working Women in Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah, Gamze Özel, Farrukh Jamal, Saima Tariq Awan


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social and economic problems of home-based (indoor) and outdoor working women in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses the literature on the binary logistic regression analysis and the maximum likelihood estimation method. The data were collected through a questionnaire from 1500 women workers in urban and rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan using simple random sampling technique.

Findings – The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the education, husband’s education level, satisfied work, get work, attitude, equal pay, harassment, burden and comments are statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications – While conducting the survey to the workers, some difficulties have been occurred  because many women workers are illiterate. Beta regression analysis can also be used to improve the study in the future studies.

Originality/value – The paper analyses for the first time in Punjab, Pakistan the problems of women workers using the binary logistic regression analysis.

Paper type – Research paper

Keywords – Home-based work; Women; Employment; logistic regression analysis; Economic Development.