Cross-cultural Human Resource Management Practices: The Case of Nigeria, USA and Japan

Samuel Emeka Mbah, Owolabi Kuye


Purpose – The article focused on comparative analyses of human resource management practices across cultures. The aim is to investigate why and how HRM practices differ or similar in Nigeria, USA and Japan.

Design/methodology/approach – Authors adopted the qualitative content analysis relying mostly on the use of secondary data generated from the Hofstede’s cultural dimension scores; the descriptive table, Bar chart, empirical and theoretical literature.

Findings – Based on the comparative analyses, the study revealed that HRM practices of Nigeria such as recruitment and selection, pay for performance, performance appraisal, training, and employment type are in developing stage and require new ideas or innovation to improve their standards.

Research limitations/implications – HRM practices are not universal in application; rather are influenced by the way they are managed across cultures. For this reason there is the need for further research to focus more on “Best-fit” which would address issues in the local context than “Best practice” which relates to universal application.  More so, Hofstede’s research findings might not correctly represent what the individual, group or country’s cultural value orientations are in reality. Yet, it has remained one of the most popular models in cross-cultural research.

Originality/value – More deficiently till date, no study in literature has specifically undertaken a comparative analysis of HRM practices of Nigeria, USA and Japan. It is the need to fill this knowledge gap and add to literature that prompted this research.  

Paper type – Qualitative and analytical paper

Keywords – HRM Practices, Cultures, Institutions, Nigeria, USA, Japan